The ultrasonic extraction machine is based on the mechanical effect, cavitation and thermal effect of ultrasound, and it can extract biological active components by increasing the speed of medium molecules and increasing the penetrating power of medium.
1. The principle of extraction
(1) the propagation of mechanical effect in medium can cause the vibration of medium mass in its propagation space, thereby enhancing the diffusion and propagation of media, which is the mechanical effect of ultrasound. A radiation pressure of the ultrasonic wave in the process of propagating along the direction of the wave, has the very strong destructive effect on the material, can make the cell tissue deformation, plant protein denaturation; at the same time, it can also give medium and suspension with different acceleration, velocity and medium molecular moving speed is far greater than the suspension of molecules. Thus, friction is produced between the two, which can disassemble the biomolecules and dissolve the effective components of the cell wall faster in the solvent.
(2) cavitation normally, medium more or less dissolved some micro bubbles, the bubbles vibration under the action of ultrasonic wave, when the pressure reaches a certain value, the bubble due to directed diffusion (rectieddiffvsion) increases, the formation of resonance cavity, and then suddenly closed, this is the ultrasonic cavitation effect. When the bubble closes, it will generate thousands of atmospheric pressure around it and form micro shock wave. It will cause breakage of plant cell wall and whole organism, and the whole rupture process will be completed in an instant, which is good for dissolution of effective components. (3) thermal effect and other physical wave, the process of ultrasonic propagation in medium and the diffusion process is also a process of energy, namely the ultrasonic wave in the process of the medium, the medium particle energy being absorbed, the medium will be absorbed by all or most of energy converted into heat, which lead to the increase of the medium itself herbs and tissue temperature, increase the dissolution rate of the effective components of the medicine. The increase in the internal temperature of the drug tissue caused by the absorption of the sound energy is instantaneous, so that the biological activity of the extracted components can remain unchanged. In addition, the ultrasonic can also produce many secondary effects, such as emulsification, diffusion, break, chemical effects, these effects also promoted the dissolution of effective components in plants, the active ingredient of the drug into the medium, and fully mixed in the medium, speeding up the extraction process, and improve the extraction rate of the effective components of drugs.